Tutorial: How to setup Nextcloud with PHP7.0 and ngix on a Synhology NAS with DMS 6 (in progress)

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#1

This tutorial shows how to install Nextcloud on Synology NAS running DMS 6. As I’m quite concerned about safety I try to make as safe as possible or at least being aware of how I could and what is the risk when I don’t do all of it.
Due to the move of the English Synology forum (Synology Forum
-> Wiki: How to setup Nextcloud with PHP7.0 and ngix (in progress).

This tutorial is not supposed to give an answer to everything neither is guaranteed that all information a fully accurate and reliable. As this is only a hobby of mine you cannot blame me if anything is wrong. I only try to share my experiences hoping to make the life of others easier who facing the same endeavour.
Feel free to give feedback on any of my statements, I’m happy to correct them.

1. Background

Probably there will be confidential data in your nextcloud you should secure wherever you can. By the time of the creation of this tutorial, I have only a simple ZyXEL NBG6616 Router and D-Link DGS-1008D 8-Port Gigabit Unmanaged Desktop switch. It is possible to install openWRT on the ZyXEL what gives me more some more additional features compared to stock firmware but first I want to get this done before I proceed to the next device. It is still on my agenda as firewall and guest wifi settings are a way more transparent in openWRT than in the stock firmware.

During my research, I came across several possibilities about how to secure my network from attacks from the inside and from the outside.
On the inside, there shall be mentioned VLAN and Radius Server but as long as the reset button is reachable by anyone in the flat, safety is limited.
On the outside, you split data and system of Nextcloud and expose as little as possible to the internet by means of firewall, proxy-server and creating dedicated user accounts for each service, what allows you to make use of Unix Domain Sockets instead of pure TCP socket based communication for data exchange between the different services on the server.
Keep in mind that in the end, only client-side encryption gives you a good level of privacy anything else makes it only harder to get there.

2. the results of my research

It isn’t little what I have learned so far but it is properly far from being complete. Nevertheless, I would like to share what I’ve learned so far allowing us to discuss security-related aspects of self-hosted Nextcloud hoping to end in a comprehensive hardening tutorial.

1. OSI and TCP/IP

First I tried to understand the architecture of the data transfer, what is described in the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), developed by the Department of Defense (DOD) to connect various devices to a common network (Internet). As well as in the OSI model, developed by ISO, the International Organization for Standardization.
The OSI is the newer protocol stack for networking. It contains a lot more layers and so more precisely defines the tasks performed by many TCP/IP layer protocols. So, if you want to develop a networking or telecommunication system, its specifications and description are more helpful to narrow down problems (Is it a physical issue or something with the application?), as well as computer programmers (when developing an application, which other layers does it need to work with?). Tech vendors selling new products will often refer to the OSI model to help customers understand which layer their products work with or whether it works “across the stack”.
With the rise of the internet, the TCP/IP stack become the de-facto standard of internet-based/related communication. Properly also supported by the fact that the TCP/IP model was focused on a smaller subset of protocols to support than OSI, the architecture is geared more specifically to its needs and its behaviours.

Before I continue you may have look on the following network protocols maps.

As I started my research, it made me feel that there are countless protocols ensuring that the data transfer works well at all layers of the stack understand each other, what made me feel lost.
These maps enlightened me a bit:
map one


map two

A lot of the mentioned protocols etc. are explained in Computer and network protocols; TCP / IP - OSI

Both are paradigms for discussing or describing how computers communicate with one another over a network but do not match exactly even for layers of the same name. Due to the clearness of the OSI and close relationship with TCP/IP some points in the following text are explained by expression related to OSI.
In order to avoid any confusion, when we talk about layer 2, layer 3 or layer 7 in which a network device works, we are referring to the OSI model, moreover, I will use the OSI layer names. This is reasoned that many devices or protocols, respectively act in a certain layer as defined by OSI only.
The main difference is that TCP/IP turns into usually known as the vertical technique and stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. On the alternative hand, OSI Model was usually known as the flat technique whereby there are distinctive layers, as an illustration, introduction, session and utility layers. More about the difference can be found on Difference Between TCP/IP vs. OSI Model – Difference Wiki

2. Ethernet

All begins that the protocol used for sending and receiving data is TCP/IP what in turn is build on ethernet. As I started my research, it made me feel that there are countless protocols ensuring that the data transfer works well at all layers of the

I started with at very bottom of the internet communication protocol

Since all techniques try to come around the natural risks of the MAC address in the Ethernet protocol, I’m going to take a trip to the basics first.
Besides the basic, you will find more information in my inquiry in the OpenWRT forum (Restrict access to a network having only an unmanaged switch).

Zusammenfassung

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[details=“1. configure network”]

That little bastard has the disadvantages that is yelling around his address what allows to be intercepted when being in the same net.
As you may wonder what the heck I’m talking about, let me explain

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Real minimum php requirments and some php mistiness
#2

STEP 1 - PREPARE DISKSTATION

1. backup your diskstation.

Besides just copying all your files to an external drive, you find more details in Synology’s KB How to back up your Synology NAS but regard reset / reinstall DSM does not work. In addition, the Note Station allows to export all notes as in explaiend in Managing Note Station

2. reset your diskstation

see Synology 's tutorial on YouTube for details.

3. install the following packages
  1. Hyper Backup, for restoring the backup

  2. Antivirus Essential, I have no clue how good it is but better than nothing it is

  3. Log Center, logging is essential for debugging

  4. php 5.6, necessary for phpMyAdmin

  5. phpMyAdmin for database adminstration

  6. php 7.0, necessary for nextcloud

  7. MariaDB 10, for the nextcloud database

  8. DNS Server, to forget about the IP of the diskstation and call it by name, e.g. www.mynas.local

  9. Note Station, as long as there isn’t a way to migrate to a nextcloud counterpart

  10. Web Station, to make the diskstation web server ready

  11. Java 8 if you want to run java based application after this installation, as I intend to do. If your model si not supported as mine follow Java SE Embedded package for Synology NAS

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#3

STEP 2 - SET UP DISKSTATION

So far I came with the following ideas based on the properly most common network, router NAS and maybe a switch, so I ended up using the guest wifi

1. LAN

separating devices from each other that can be done by

  1. subnetting
  2. VLAN
  3. MAC Filter
  4. Port supervision
2. WAN
1. configure network

[/details]

1. configure DNS SERVER

all functions are well explained on Synology’s Knowledge Base
I use the DNS Server freenom (what is my domain provider for experimenting and safeDNS.

Resolution SErver:
In resolution tab enable resolution to allow DNS server to query other DNS servers when it can’t resolve a name. A local machine caches DNS tables so that it doesn’t have to query a DNS server for each request to a resource URL when browsing internet etc. I believe this is the service that caches DNS tables in DiskStation and may make browsing from several clients in local network a bit faster. Forwarders is public DNS servers used to resolve other addresses, the IPs used here is for the public Google DNS servers.

You can enable resolution services to allow the DiskStation to resolve recursive queries. A recursive query occurs when the DiskStation is not authoritative for a requested domain. In this case, the DiskStation queries other domain name servers until the information is found, or until the query fails.

For example, if a client queries your DiskStation for the address of “synology.com,” but your DiskStation is not authoritative for this domain (i.e. you do not own synology.com), it will query other domain name servers or forward the request to specified forwarder servers, and then relay the result back to the sender of the query.

Second , you need to configure a fallback DNS for looking up unknown names. The resolution tab in the DNS Server configuration has everything:

2. configure router to use Synology's DNS Server
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#4

***reserved for further comments part 3/3 ***

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